inproceedings_martens.bib

@inproceedings{avritzer2013a,
  acmid = {2479905},
  address = {New York, NY, USA},
  author = {Alberto Avritzer and Sindhu Suresh and Daniel Sadoc Menasch\'{e} and Rosa Maria Meri {Le\~{a}o} and Edmundo de Souza e Silva and Morganna Carmem Diniz and Kishor Trivedi and Lucia Happe and Anne Koziolek},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the fourth ACM/SPEC International Conference on Performance Engineering (ICPE 2013)},
  doi = {10.1145/2479871.2479905},
  isbn = {978-1-4503-1636-1},
  keywords = {fault tolerance, smart grid, survivability, transient analysis},
  location = {Prague, Czech Republic},
  numpages = {12},
  pages = {241--252},
  pdf = {http://sdqweb.ipd.kit.edu/publications/pdfs/avritzer2013a.pdf},
  publisher = {ACM, New York, NY, USA},
  series = {ICPE '13},
  title = {Survivability Models for the Assessment of Smart Grid Distribution Automation Network Designs},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2479871.2479905},
  year = {2013}
}
@inproceedings{avritzer2014a,
  abstract = {We present models and metrics for the survivability assessment of distribution power grid networks accounting for the impact of multiple failures due to large storms. The analytical models used to compute the proposed metrics are built on top of three design principles: state space factorization, state aggregation, and initial state conditioning. Using these principles, we build scalable models that are amenable to analytical treatment and efficient numerical solution. Our models capture the impact of using reclosers and tie switches to enable faster service restoration after large storms. We have evaluated the presented models using data from a real power distribution grid impacted by a large storm: Hurricane Sandy. Our empirical results demonstrate that our models are able to efficiently evaluate the impact of storm hardening investment alternatives on customer affecting metrics such as the expected energy not supplied until complete system recovery.},
  author = {Alberto Avritzer and Laura Carnevali and Lucia Happe and Anne Koziolek and Daniel Sadoc Menasche and Marco Paolieri and Sindhu Suresh},
  booktitle = {Quantitative Evaluation of Systems, 11th International Conference, QEST 2014, Florence, Italy, September 8-10, 2014, Proceedings},
  editor = {Norman, Gethin and Sanders, William},
  isbn = {978-3-319-10695-3},
  pages = {345--367},
  publisher = {Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg},
  series = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
  subseries = {Theoretical Computer Science and General Issues},
  title = {A Scalable Approach to the Assessment of Storm Impact in Distributed Automation Power Grids},
  url = {http://www.springer.com/computer/theoretical+computer+science/book/978-3-319-10695-3},
  volume = {8657},
  year = {2014}
}
@inproceedings{charrada2012a,
  abstract = {Keeping requirements specifications up-to-date when systems evolve is a manual and expensive task. Software engineers have to go through the whole requirements document and look for the requirements that are affected by a change. Consequently, engineers usually apply changes to the implementation directly and leave requirements unchanged. In this paper, we propose an approach for automatically detecting outdated requirements based on changes in the code. Our approach first identifies the changes in the code that are likely to affect requirements. Then it extracts a set of keywords describing the changes. These keywords are traced to the requirements specification, using an existing automated traceability tool, to identify affected requirements. Automatically identifying outdated requirements reduces the effort and time needed for the maintenance of requirements specifications significantly and thus helps preserve the knowledge contained in them. We evaluated our approach in a case study where we analyzed two consecutive source code versions and were able to detect 12 requirements-related changes out of 14 with a precision of 79\%. Then we traced a set of keywords we extracted from these changes to the requirements specification. In comparison to simply tracing changed classes to requirements, we got better results in most cases.},
  author = {Ben Charrada, Eya and Koziolek, Anne and Glinz, Martin},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 20th IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference (RE 2012)},
  doi = {10.1109/RE.2012.6345840},
  issn = {1090-750X},
  keywords = {Context;Documentation;Java;Manuals;Prototypes;Software systems;document handling;formal specification;information retrieval;program diagnostics;software maintenance;automated traceability tool;automatic outdated requirement detection;keyword extraction;outdated requirement identification;requirements document;requirements specification maintenance;source code changes;requirements update;software evolution;source code changes;traceability;},
  month = {September},
  pages = {61 -70},
  pdf = {http://www.merlin.uzh.ch/download/index/953},
  title = {Identifying Outdated Requirements Based On Source Code Changes},
  year = {2012}
}
@inproceedings{ciavotta2016a,
  author = {Ciavotta, Michele and Ardagna, Danilo and Koziolek, Anne},
  title = {Palladio Optimization Suite: QoS Optimization for Component-based Cloud Applications},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 9th EAI International Conference on Performance Evaluation Methodologies and Tools},
  series = {VALUETOOLS'15},
  year = {2016},
  isbn = {978-1-63190-096-9},
  location = {Berlin, Germany},
  pages = {170--171},
  numpages = {2},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4108/eai.14-12-2015.2262562},
  doi = {10.4108/eai.14-12-2015.2262562},
  acmid = {2897434},
  publisher = {ICST (Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering)},
  address = {ICST, Brussels, Belgium, Belgium},
  keywords = {cloud, model-driven, optimization, qos},
  pdf = {http://sdqweb.ipd.kit.edu/publications/pdfs/ciavotta2016a.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{cortellessa2010a,
  abstract = {The problem of interpreting the results of software performance analysis is very critical. Software developers expect feedbacks in terms of architectural design alternatives (e.g., split a software component in two components and re-deploy one of them), whereas the results of performance analysis are either pure numbers (e.g. mean values) or functions (e.g. probability distributions). Support to the interpretation of such results that helps to fill the gap between numbers/functions and software alternatives is still lacking. Performance antipatterns can play a key role in the search of performance problems and in the formulation of their solutions. In this paper we tackle the problem of identifying, among a set of detected performance antipatterns, the ones that are the real causes of problems (i.e. the guilty ones). To this goal we introduce a process to elaborate the performance analysis results and to score performance requirements, model entities and performance antipatterns. The cross observation of such scores allows to classify the level of guiltiness of each antipattern. An example modeled in Palladio is provided to demonstrate the validity of our approach by comparing the performance improvements obtained after removal of differently scored antipatterns.},
  author = {Vittorio Cortellessa and Anne Martens and Ralf Reussner and Catia Trubiani},
  bookseries = {LNCS},
  booktitle = {Fundamental Approaches to Software Engineering, 13th International Conference, FASE 2010},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-12029-9_26},
  editor = {Rosenblum, David and Taentzer, Gabriele},
  location = {Paphos, Cyprus},
  pages = {368--382},
  pdf = {http://sdqweb.ipd.kit.edu/publications/pdfs/cortellessa2010a.pdf},
  publisher = {Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg},
  title = {A Process to Effectively Identify Guilty Performance Antipatterns},
  url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/wl11718486334174},
  year = {2010}
}
@inproceedings{durdik2013a,
  author = {Zoya Durdik and Anne Koziolek and Ralf Reussner},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on the Twin Peaks of Requirements and Architecture (TwinPeaks)},
  doi = {10.1109/TwinPeaks.2013.6614718},
  keywords = {formal specification;software architecture;systems analysis;architectural design;design decisions;requirement elicitation;requirement prioritisation;requirements engineering;software architecture;Computer architecture;Performance evaluation;Servers;Software;Space exploration;Time factors;Software architecture;design decisions;requirements engineering},
  month = {May},
  pages = {14-18},
  title = {{How the Understanding of the Effects of Design Decisions Informs Requirements Engineering}},
  year = {2013},
  pdf = {http://sdqweb.ipd.kit.edu/publications/pdfs/durdik2013a.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{gooijer2012a,
  acmid = {2188319},
  address = {New York, NY, USA},
  author = {Thijmen de Gooijer and Anton Jansen and Heiko Koziolek and Anne Koziolek},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 3rd ACM/SPEC International Conference on Performance Engineering},
  doi = {10.1145/2188286.2188319},
  editor = {Lizy {Kurian John} and Diwakar Krishnamurthy},
  isbn = {978-1-4503-1202-8},
  keywords = {industrial case study, performance modeling, software architecture},
  location = {Boston, Massachusetts, USA},
  note = {ICPE Best Industry-Related Paper Award},
  numpages = {12},
  pages = {205--216},
  pdf = {http://sdqweb.ipd.kit.edu/publications/pdfs/gooijer2012a.pdf},
  publisher = {ACM},
  series = {ICPE '12},
  title = {An Industrial Case Study of Performance and Cost Design Space Exploration},
  url = {http://icpe2012.ipd.kit.edu},
  year = {2012}
}
@inproceedings{gouvea2011a,
  acmid = {1958757},
  address = {New York, NY, USA},
  author = {Daniel Dominguez Gouv\^ea and Cyro Muniz and Gilson Pinto and Alberto Avritzer and Rosa Maria Meri {Le\~{a}o} and Edmundo de Souza e Silva and Morganna Carmem Diniz and Luca Berardinelli and Julius C. B. Leite and Daniel {Moss\'e} and Yuanfang Cai and Mike Dalton and Lucia Kapova and Anne Koziolek},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the second joint WOSP/SIPEW international conference on Performance engineering (ICPE 2011)},
  doi = {10.1145/1958746.1958757},
  editor = {Samuel Kounev and Vittorio Cortellessa and Raffaela Mirandola and David J. Lilja},
  isbn = {978-1-4503-0519-8},
  location = {Karlsruhe, Germany},
  numpages = {12},
  pages = {43--54},
  pdf = {http://sdqweb.ipd.kit.edu/publications/pdfs/gouvea2011a.pdf},
  publisher = {ACM},
  title = {Experience Building Non-Functional Requirement Models of a Complex Industrial Architecture},
  url = {http://icpe2011.ipd.kit.edu/call_for_papers/industrialexperience_track/},
  year = {2011}
}
@inproceedings{HuHoKoBrKo2012-ICEBE-STA,
  abstract = {Modern virtualized system environments usually host diverse applications of different parties and aim at utilizing resources efficiently while ensuring that quality-of-service requirements are continuously satisfied. In such scenarios, complex adaptations to changes in the system environment are still largely performed manually by humans. Over the past decade, autonomic self-adaptation techniques aiming to minimize human intervention have become increasingly popular. However, given that adaptation processes are usually highly system specific, it is a challenge to abstract from system details enabling the reuse of adaptation strategies. In this paper, we propose a novel modeling language (meta-model) providing means to describe system adaptation processes at the system architecture level in a generic, human-understandable and reusable way. We apply our approach to three different realistic contexts (dynamic resource allocation, software architecture optimization, and run-time adaptation planning) showing how the gap between complex manual adaptations and their autonomous execution can be closed by using a holistic model-based approach.},
  address = {Los Alamitos, CA, USA},
  author = {Nikolaus Huber and Andr\'{e} van Hoorn and Anne Koziolek and Fabian Brosig and Samuel Kounev},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 9th IEEE International Conference on e-Business Engineering (ICEBE 2012)},
  day = {9--11},
  doi = {http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/ICEBE.2012.21},
  isbn = {978-1-4673-2601-8},
  location = {Hangzhou, China},
  month = {September},
  note = {Acceptance Rate (Full Paper): 19.7\% (26/132)},
  pages = {70--77},
  pdf = {http://sdqweb.ipd.kit.edu/publications/descartes-pdfs/HuHoKoBrKo2012-ICEBE-AdaptationLanguage.pdf},
  publisher = {IEEE Computer Society},
  title = {{S/T/A: Meta-Modeling Run-Time Adaptation in Component-Based System Architectures}},
  url = {http://conferences.computer.org/icebe/2012/index.htm},
  year = {2012}
}
@inproceedings{jacques2015a,
  title = {Survivability modeling to assess deployment alternatives accounting for rejuvenation},
  author = {Jacques-Silva, Gabriela and Avritzer, Alberto and Menasch{\'e}, Daniel S and Koziolek, Anne and Happe, Lucia and Suresh, Sindhu},
  booktitle = {Software Reliability Engineering Workshops (ISSREW), 2015 IEEE International Symposium on},
  pages = {114--119},
  year = {2015},
  organization = {IEEE},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1109/ISSREW.2015.7392055},
  url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/7392055},
  pdf = {http://sdqweb.ipd.kit.edu/publications/pdfs/jacques2015a}
}
@inproceedings{kapova2009b,
  abstract = {Performance prediction and measurement approaches for component-based software systems help software architects to evaluate their systems based on component performance specifications created by component developers. Integrating classical performance models such as queueing networks, stochastic Petri nets, or stochastic process algebras, these approaches additionally exploit the benefits of component-based software engineering, such as reuse and division of work. Although researchers have proposed many approaches in this direction during the last decade, none of them has attained widespread industrial use. On this basis, we have conducted a comprehensive state-of-the-art survey of more than 20 of these approaches assessing their applicability. We classified the approaches according to the expressiveness of their component performance modelling languages. Our survey helps practitioners to select an appropriate approach and scientists to identify interesting topics for future research.},
  address = {New York, NY, USA},
  author = {Lucia Kapova and Barbora Zimmerova and Anne Martens and Jens Happe and Ralf H. Reussner},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 1st Joint WOSP/SIPEW International Conference on Performance Engineering (WOSP/SIPEW '10)},
  doi = {10.1145/1712605.1712613},
  location = {San Jose, California, USA},
  pages = {37--48},
  publisher = {ACM},
  title = {State Dependence in Performance Evaluation of Component-Based Software Systems},
  url = {http://sdqweb.ipd.uka.de/publications/pdfs/kapova2009b.pdf},
  year = {2010}
}
@inproceedings{koziolek2012d,
  abstract = {[Context and motivation] Quality requirements are a main driver for architectural decisions of software systems. Although the need for iterative handling of requirements and architecture has been identified, current architecture design processes do not provide systematic, quantitative feedback for the prioritization and cost/benefit considerations for quality requirements. [Question/problem] Thus, in practice stakeholders still often state and prioritize quality requirements before knowing the software architecture, i.e. without knowledge about the quality dependencies, conflicts, incurred costs, and technical feasibility. However, as quality properties usually are cross-cutting architecture concerns, estimating the effects of design decisions is difficult. Thus, stakeholders cannot reliably know the appropriate required level of quality. [Principal ideas/results] In this research proposal, we suggest an approach to generate feedback from quantitative architecture evaluation to requirements engineering, in particular to requirements prioritization. We propose to use automated design space exploration techniques to generate information about available trade-offs. Final quality requirement prioritization is deferred until first feedback from architecture evaluation is available. [Contribution] In this paper, we present the process model of our approach enabling feedback to requirement prioritization and describe application scenarios and an example.},
  affiliation = {Department of Informatics, University of Zurich, Switzerland},
  author = {Anne Koziolek},
  booktitle = {Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-28714-5_5},
  editor = {Regnell, Bj{\"o}rn and Damian, Daniela},
  isbn = {978-3-642-28713-8},
  keyword = {Computer Science},
  pages = {52--58},
  pdf = {http://sdqweb.ipd.kit.edu/publications/pdfs/koziolek2012a.pdf},
  publisher = {Springer Verlag Berlin Heidelberg},
  series = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
  title = {Research Preview: Prioritizing Quality Requirements based on Software Architecture Evaluation Feedback},
  url = {http://www.refsq.org/2012/},
  volume = {7195},
  year = {2012}
}
@inproceedings{koziolek2012c,
  abstract = {Quality requirements are main drivers for architectural decisions of software systems. However, in practice they are often dismissed during development, because of initially unknown dependencies and consequences that complicate implementation. To decide for meaningful, feasible quality requirements and trade them off with functional requirements, tighter integration of software architecture evaluation and requirements prioritization is necessary. In this position paper, we propose a tool-supported method for architecture-driven feedback into requirements prioritization. Our method uses automated design space exploration based on quantitative quality evaluation of software architecture models. It helps requirements analysts and software architects to study the quality trade-offs of a software architecture, and use this information for requirements prioritization.},
  author = {Anne Koziolek},
  booktitle = {First International Workshop on the Twin Peaks of Requirements and Architecture ({TwinPeaks 2012})},
  doi = {10.1109/TwinPeaks.2012.6344554},
  pages = {15--19},
  pdf = {http://sdqweb.ipd.kit.edu/publications/pdfs/koziolek2012c.pdf},
  publisher = {IEEE Computer Society},
  title = {Architecture-Driven Quality Requirements Prioritization},
  url = {http://re.cs.depaul.edu/twinpeaks/},
  year = {2012}
}
@inproceedings{koziolek2013b,
  author = {Koziolek, Anne and Avritzer, Alberto and Suresh, Sindhu and Menasche, Daniel Sadoc and Trivedi, Kishor and Happe, Lucia},
  booktitle = {Software Reliability Engineering (ISSRE), 2013 IEEE 24th International Symposium on},
  doi = {10.1109/ISSRE.2013.6698903},
  pages = {41-50},
  pdf = {http://sdqweb.ipd.kit.edu/publications/pdfs/koziolek2013b.pdf},
  title = {Design of distribution automation networks using survivability modeling and power flow equations},
  year = {2013}
}
@inproceedings{koziolek2012b,
  abstract = {Smart distribution networks shall improve the efficiency and reliability of power distribution by intelligently managing the available power and requested load. Such intelligent power networks pose challenges for information and communication technology (ICT). Their design requires a holistic assessment of traditional power system topology and ICT architecture. Existing analysis approaches focus on analyzing the power networks components separately. For example, communication simulation provides failure data for communication links, while power analysis makes predictions about the stability of the traditional power grid. However, these insights are not combined to provide a basis for design decisions for future smart distribution networks. In this paper, we describe a common model-driven analysis framework for smart distribution networks based on the Common Information Model (CIM). This framework provides scalable analysis of large smart distribution networks by supporting analyses on different levels of abstraction. Furthermore, we apply our framework to holistic survivability analysis. We map the CIM on a survivability model to enable assessing design options with respect to the achieved survivability improvement. We demonstrate our approach by applying the mapping transformation in a case study based on a real distribution circuit. We conclude by evaluating the survivability impact of three investment options.},
  author = {Anne Koziolek and Lucia Happe and Alberto Avritzer and Sindhu Suresh},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Software Engineering Challenges for the Smart Grid (SE-SmartGrids 2012)},
  doi = {10.1109/SE4SG.2012.6225713},
  isbn = {978-1-4673-1864-8},
  pages = {23--29},
  pdf = {http://sdqweb.ipd.kit.edu/publications/pdfs/koziolek2012b.pdf},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  title = {A Common Analysis Framework for Smart Distribution Networks Applied to Survivability Analysis of Distribution Automation},
  url = {http://gridoptics.pnnl.gov/se4sg12},
  year = {2012}
}
@inproceedings{koziolek2011f,
  abstract = {Designing software architectures that exhibit a good trade-off between multiple quality attributes is hard. Even with a given functional design, many degrees of freedom in the software architecture (e.g. component deployment or server configuration) span a large design space. In current practice, software architects try to find good solutions manually, which is time-consuming, can be error-prone and can lead to suboptimal designs. We propose an automated approach guided by architectural tactics to search the design space for good solutions. Our approach applies multi-objective evolutionary optimization to software architectures modelled with the Palladio Component Model. Software architects can then make well-informed trade-off decisions and choose the best architecture for their situation. To validate our approach, we applied it to the architecture models of two systems, a business reporting system and an industrial control system from ABB. The approach was able to find meaningful trade-offs leading to significant performance improvements or costs savings. The novel use of tactics decreased the time needed to find good solutions by up to 80\%.},
  acmid = {2000267},
  author = {Koziolek, Anne and Koziolek, Heiko and Reussner, Ralf},
  booktitle = {Joint proceedings of the Seventh International ACM SIGSOFT Conference on the Quality of Software Architectures and the 2nd ACM SIGSOFT International Symposium on Architecting Critical Systems (QoSA-ISARCS 2011)},
  doi = {10.1145/2000259.2000267},
  editor = {Ivica Crnkovic and Judith A. Stafford and Dorina C. Petriu and Jens Happe and Paola Inverardi},
  isbn = {978-1-4503-0724-6},
  keywords = {architectural tactics, costs, multi-objective optimization, optimization, performance, reliability, software architecture},
  location = {Boulder, Colorado, USA},
  numpages = {10},
  pages = {33--42},
  pdf = {http://sdqweb.ipd.kit.edu/publications/pdfs/koziolek2011f.pdf},
  publisher = {ACM, New York, NY, USA},
  title = {{PerOpteryx}: automated application of tactics in multi-objective software architecture optimization},
  url = {http://qosa.ipd.kit.edu/qosa_2011/},
  year = {2011}
}
@inproceedings{koziolek2011b,
  abstract = {Quantitative prediction of non-functional properties, such as performance, reliability, and costs, of software architectures supports systematic software engineering. Even though there usually is a rough idea on bounds for quality of service, the exact required values may be unclear and subject to trade-offs. Designing architectures that exhibit such good trade-off between multiple quality attributes is hard. Even with a given functional design, many degrees of freedom in the software architecture (e.g. component deployment or server configuration) span a large design space. Automated approaches search the design space with multi-objective metaheuristics such as evolutionary algorithms. However, as quality prediction for a single architecture is computationally expensive, these approaches are time consuming. In this work, we enhance an automated improvement approach to take into account bounds for quality of service in order to focus the search on interesting regions of the objective space, while still allowing trade-offs after the search. We compare two different constraint handling techniques to consider the bounds. To validate our approach, we applied both techniques to an architecture model of a component-based business information system. We compared both techniques to an unbounded search in 4 scenarios. Every scenario was examined with 10 optimization runs, each investigating around 1600 architectural candidates. The results indicate that the integration of quality of service bounds during the optimization process can improve the quality of the solutions found, however, the effect depends on the scenario, i.e. the problem and the quality requirements. The best results were achieved for costs requirements: The approach was able to decrease the time needed to find good solutions in the interesting regions of the objective space by 25\% on average.},
  author = {Anne Koziolek and Qais Noorshams and Ralf Reussner},
  booktitle = {{Models in Software Engineering, Workshops and Symposia at MODELS 2010, Oslo, Norway, October 3-8, 2010, Reports and Revised Selected Papers}},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-21210-9_37},
  editor = {J. Dingel and A. Solberg},
  pages = {384--399},
  pdf = {http://sdqweb.ipd.uka.de/publications/pdfs/koziolek2011b.pdf},
  publisher = {Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg},
  series = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
  title = {Focussing Multi-objective Software Architecture Optimization Using Quality of Service Bounds},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-21210-9},
  volume = {6627},
  year = {2011}
}
@inproceedings{koziolek2011d,
  abstract = {Designing component-based systems (CBS) that exhibit a good trade-off between multiple quality criteria is hard. Even after functional design, many remaining degrees of freedom of different types (e.g.\ component allocation, component selection, server configuration) in the CBS span a large, discontinuous design space. Automated approaches have been proposed to optimise CBS models, but they only consider a limited set of degrees of freedom, e.g.\ they only optimise the selection of components without considering the allocation, or vice versa. We propose a flexible and extensible formulation of the design space for optimising any CBS model for a number of quality properties and an arbitrary number of degrees of freedom. With this design space formulation, a generic quality optimisation framework that is independent of the used CBS metamodel can apply multi-objective metaheuristic optimisation such as evolutionary algorithms.},
  acmid = {2000244},
  address = {New York, NY, USA},
  author = {Koziolek, Anne and Reussner, Ralf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 14th international ACM Sigsoft symposium on Component based software engineering},
  doi = {10.1145/2000229.2000244},
  editor = {Ivica Crnkovic and Judith A. Stafford and Antonia Bertolino and Kendra M. L. Cooper},
  isbn = {978-1-4503-0723-9},
  keywords = {component-based, optimisation, quality},
  location = {Boulder, Colorado, USA},
  month = {June},
  numpages = {6},
  pages = {103--108},
  pdf = {http://sdqweb.ipd.uka.de/publications/pdfs/koziolek2011d.pdf},
  publisher = {ACM, New York, NY, USA},
  series = {CBSE '11},
  title = {Towards a generic quality optimisation framework for component-based system models},
  url = {http://cbse-conferences.org/2011},
  year = {2011}
}
@inproceedings{koziolek2011a,
  abstract = {Systematic decision support for architectural design decisions is a major concern for software architects of evolving service-oriented systems. In practice, architects often analyse the expected performance and reliability of design alternatives based on prototypes or former experience. Modeldriven prediction methods claim to uncover the tradeoffs between different alternatives quantitatively while being more cost-effective and less error-prone. However, they often suffer from weak tool support and focus on single quality attributes. Furthermore, there is limited evidence on their effectiveness based on documented industrial case studies. Thus, we have applied a novel, model-driven prediction method called Q-ImPrESS on a large-scale process control system consisting of several million lines of code from the automation domain to evaluate its evolution scenarios. This paper reports our experiences with the method and lessons learned. Benefits of Q-ImPrESS are the good architectural decision support and comprehensive tool framework, while one drawback is the time-consuming data collection.},
  acmid = {1985902},
  author = {Heiko Koziolek and Bastian Schlich and Carlos Bilich and Roland Weiss and Steffen Becker and Klaus Krogmann and Mircea Trifu and Raffaela Mirandola and Anne Koziolek},
  booktitle = {Proceeding of the 33rd international conference on Software engineering (ICSE 2011), Software Engineering in Practice Track},
  doi = {10.1145/1985793.1985902},
  editor = {Richard N. Taylor and Harald Gall and Nenad Medvidovic},
  isbn = {978-1-4503-0445-0},
  keywords = {case study, dtmc, industrial software, lqn, palladio, performance prediction, reliability prediction, reverse engineering, service-oriented software, trade-off analysis},
  location = {Waikiki, Honolulu, HI, USA},
  note = {Acceptance Rate: 18\% (18/100)},
  numpages = {10},
  pages = {776--785},
  publisher = {ACM, New York, NY, USA},
  title = {An Industrial Case Study on Quality Impact Prediction for Evolving Service-Oriented Software},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1985793.1985902},
  year = {2011},
  pdf = {http://sdqweb.ipd.kit.edu/publications/pdfs/koziolek2011a.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{koziolek2018a,
  author = {Anne Koziolek and Peter Sanders and Dorothea Wagner},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Software Architecture},
  series = {ECSA'18},
  location = {Madrid, Spain},
  publisher = {Springer},
  address = {Berlin, DE},
  keywords = {Gender diversity, Women in Computing},
  tags = {refereed},
  title = {{An Equal Opportunity Concept for the Coordinated Research Effort AESC}},
  //url = {},
  //doi = {},
  //pages = {},
  numpages = {4},
  //isbn = {},
  //pdf = {},
  year = {2018},
  abstract = {Even after years of systematic support to achieve equal opportunity of women, the number of women in informatics education and research in Germany is still too low. In this paper, we describe the equal opportunity concept that we developed for a coordinated research effort proposal. We first explore and describe the situation of women in computing at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), which hosts AESC, before deriving concrete aims and measures we propose for AESC. With this short paper, we aim to share our equal opportunity concept so that it may be enhanced and extended by other coordinated research efforts and other institutions.},
  note = {accepted, to appear}
}
@inproceedings{krogmann2009a,
  abstract = {Software performance engineering provides techniques to analyze and predict the performance (e.g., response time or resource utilization) of software systems to avoid implementations with insufficient performance. These techniques operate on models of software, often at an architectural level, to enable early, design-time predictions for evaluating design alternatives. Current software performance engineering approaches allow the prediction of performance at design time, but often provide cryptic results (e.g., lengths of queues). These prediction results can be hardly mapped back to the software architecture by humans, making it hard to derive the right design decisions. In this paper, we integrate software cartography (a map technique) with software performance engineering to overcome the limited interpretability of raw performance prediction results. Our approach is based on model transformations and a general software visualization approach. It provides an intuitive mapping of prediction results to the software architecture which simplifies design decisions. We successfully evaluated our approach in a quasi experiment involving 41 participants by comparing the correctness of performance-improving design decisions and participants' time effort using our novel approach to an existing software performance visualization.},
  author = {Klaus Krogmann and Christian M. Schweda and Sabine Buckl and Michael Kuperberg and Anne Martens and Florian Matthes},
  booktitle = {{Architectures for Adaptive Systems (Proceedings of QoSA 2009)}},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-02351-4_4},
  editor = {Raffaela Mirandola and Ian Gorton and Christine Hofmeister},
  note = {Best Paper Award},
  pages = {52--69},
  publisher = {Springer},
  series = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
  title = {{Improved Feedback for Architectural Performance Prediction using Software Cartography Visualizations}},
  url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/m0325512hl4857v1},
  volume = {5581},
  year = {2009},
  pdf = {http://sdqweb.ipd.kit.edu/publications/pdfs/krogmann2009a.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{martens2010b,
  abstract = {Multiple, often conflicting quality of service (QoS) requirements arise when evaluating design decisions and selecting design alternatives of complex component-based software systems. In this scenario, selecting a good solution with respect to a single quality attribute can lead to unacceptable results with respect to the other quality attributes. A promising way to deal with this problem is to exploit multi-objective optimization where the objectives represent different quality attributes. The aim of these techniques is to devise a set of solutions, each of which assures a trade-off between the conflicting qualities. To automate this task, this paper proposes a combined use of analytical optimization techniques and evolutionary algorithms to efficiently identify a significant set of design alternatives, from which an architecture that best fits the different quality objectives can be selected. The proposed approach can lead both to a reduction of development costs and to an improvement of the quality of the final system. We demonstrate the use of this approach on a simple case study.},
  author = {Anne Martens and Danilo Ardagna and Heiko Koziolek and Raffaela Mirandola and Ralf Reussner},
  booktitle = {{Research into Practice - Reality and Gaps (Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on the Quality of Software Architectures, QoSA 2010)}},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-13821-8_8},
  editor = {George Heineman and Jan Kofron and Frantisek Plasil},
  pages = {84-101},
  pdf = {http://sdqweb.ipd.kit.edu/publications/pdfs/martens2010b.pdf},
  publisher = {Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg},
  series = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
  title = {A Hybrid Approach for Multi-Attribute {QoS} Optimisation in Component Based Software Systems},
  url = {http://sdqweb.ipd.kit.edu/publications/pdfs/martens2010b.pdf},
  volume = {6093},
  year = {2010}
}
@inproceedings{martens2008b,
  abstract = {Component-based software performance engineering (CBSPE) methods shall enable software architects to assess the expected response times, throughputs, and resource utilization of their systems already during design. This avoids the violation of performance requirements. Existing approaches for CBSPE either lack tool support or rely on prototypical tools, who have only been applied by their authors. Therefore, industrial applicability of these methods is unknown. On this behalf, we have conducted a controlled experiment involving 19 computer science students, who analysed the performance of two component-based designs using our Palladio performance prediction approach, as an example for a CBSPE method. Our study is the first of its type in this area and shall help to mature CBSPE to industrial applicability. In this paper, we report on results concerning the prediction accuracy achieved by the students and list several lessons learned, which are also relevant for other methods than Palladio.},
  author = {Anne Martens and Steffen Becker and Heiko Koziolek and Ralf Reussner},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 5th European Performance Engineering Workshop (EPEW'08), Palma de Mallorca, Spain},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-540-87891-9_2},
  editor = {N. Thomas and C. Juiz},
  pages = {17--31},
  pdf = {http://sdqweb.ipd.uka.de/publications/pdfs/martens2008b.pdf},
  publisher = {Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg},
  series = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
  title = {An Empirical Investigation of the Applicability of a Component-Based Performance Prediction Method},
  volume = {5261},
  year = {2008}
}
@inproceedings{martens2008a,
  abstract = {Model-based performance prediction methods aim at evaluating the expected response time, throughput, and resource utilisation of a software system at design time, before implementation. Existing performance prediction methods use monolithic, throw-away prediction models or component-based, reusable prediction models. While it is intuitively clear that the development of reusable models requires more effort, the actual higher amount of effort has not been quantified or analysed systematically yet. To study the effort, we conducted a controlled experiment with 19 computer science students who predicted the performance of two example systems applying an established, monolithic method (Software Performance Engineering) as well as our own component-based method (Palladio). The results show that the effort of model creation with Palladio is approximately 1.25 times higher than with SPE in our experimental setting, with the resulting models having comparable prediction accuracy. Therefore, in some cases, the creation of reusable prediction models can already be justified, if they are reused at least once.},
  author = {Anne Martens and Steffen Becker and Heiko Koziolek and Ralf Reussner},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Component-Based Software Engineering (CBSE'08), Karlsruhe, Germany},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-540-87412-6_3},
  editors = {M.R.V. Chaudron and C. Szyperski},
  pages = {16--31},
  pdf = {http://sdqweb.ipd.uka.de/publications/pdfs/martens2008a.pdf},
  publisher = {Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg},
  series = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
  title = {An Empirical Investigation of the Effort of Creating Reusable Models for Performance Prediction},
  volume = {5282},
  year = {2008}
}
@inproceedings{martens2009b,
  abstract = {Quantitative prediction of quality criteria (i.e. extra-functional properties such as performance, reliability, and cost) of service-oriented architectures supports a systematic software engineering approach. However, various degrees of freedom in building a software architecture span a large, discontinuous design space. Currently, solutions with a good trade-off between multiple quality criteria have to be found manually. We propose an automated approach to search the design space by modifying the architectural models, to improve the architecture with respect to multiple quality criteria, and to find optimal architectural models. The found optimal architectural models can be used as an input for trade-off analyses and thus allow systematic engineering of high-quality software architectures. Using this approach, the design of a high-quality component-based software system is eased for the software architect and thus saves cost and effort. Our approach applies a multi-criteria genetic algorithm to software architectures modelled with the Palladio Component Model (PCM). Currently, the method supports quantitative performance and reliability prediction, but it can be extended to other quality properties such as cost as well.},
  author = {Anne Martens and Franz Brosch and Ralf Reussner},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 1st international workshop on Quality of service-oriented software systems (QUASOSS)},
  doi = {10.1145/1596473.1596481},
  editors = {Paul Petterson and Heiko Koziolek and Petr Hnetynka},
  pages = {25--32},
  pdf = {http://sdqweb.ipd.uka.de/publications/pdfs/martens2009b.pdf},
  publisher = {ACM, New York, NY, USA},
  title = {Optimising multiple quality criteria of service-oriented software architectures},
  year = {2009}
}
@inproceedings{martens2009a,
  abstract = {Formal performance prediction methods, based on queueing network models, allow evaluating software architectural designs for performance. Existing methods provide prediction results such as response times and throughputs, but do not guide the software architect on how to improve the design. We propose a novel approach to optimise the expected performance of component-based software designs by automatically generating and evaluating design alternatives. The design space spanned by different design options (e.g. available components and configuration options) is systematically explored using metaheuristic search techniques and performance-domain heuristics. The gap between applying formal performance predictions and actually improving the design of a system can thus be closed. This paper presents a formal description and a prototypical implementation of our approach with a proof-of-concept case study.},
  author = {Anne Martens and Heiko Koziolek},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the Sixth International Workshop on Formal Engineering approaches to Software Components and Architectures (FESCA 2009)},
  doi = {10.1016/j.entcs.2009.09.029},
  editors = {Barbora Zimmerova and Jens Happe},
  issn = {1571-0661},
  pages = {77 -- 93},
  pdf = {http://sdqweb.ipd.uka.de/publications/pdfs/martens2009a.pdf},
  publisher = {Elsevier},
  series = {Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science},
  title = {Automatic, Model-Based Software Performance Improvement for Component-based Software Designs},
  volume = {253(1)},
  year = {2009}
}
@inproceedings{martens2008c,
  abstract = {Architectural models of component-based software systems are evaluated for functional properties and/or extrafunctional properties (e.g. by doing performance predictions). However, after getting the results of the evaluations and recognising that requirements are not met, most existing approaches leave the software architect alone with finding new alternatives to her current design (e.g. by changing the selection of components, the configuration of components and containers, the sizing). We propose a novel approach to automatically generate and assess performance-improving design alternatives for componentbased software systems based on performance analyses of the software architecture. First, the design space spanned by different design options (e.g. available components, configuration options) is systematically explored using metaheuristic search techniques. Second, new architecture candidates are generated based on detecting anti-patterns in the initial architecture. Using this approach, the design of a high-quality component-based software system is eased for the software architect. First, she needs less manual effort to find good design alternatives. Second, good design alternatives can be uncovered that the software architect herself would have overlooked.},
  author = {Anne Martens and Heiko Koziolek},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Workshop on Component-Oriented Programming (WCOP'08), Karlsruhe, Germany},
  editors = {Ralf Reussner and Clemens Szyperski and Wolfgang Weck},
  issn = {1432-7864},
  pages = {25--32},
  pdf = {http://sdqweb.ipd.uka.de/publications/pdfs/martens2008c.pdf},
  series = {Interner Bericht / Universit{\"a}t Karlsruhe, Fakult{\"a}t f{\"u}r Informatik ; 2008,12},
  title = {Performance-oriented Design Space Exploration},
  year = {2008}
}
@inproceedings{martens2010a,
  abstract = {Quantitative prediction of quality properties (i.e. extra-functional properties such as performance, reliability, and cost) of software architectures during design supports a systematic software engineering approach. Designing architectures that exhibit a good trade-off between multiple quality criteria is hard, because even after a functional design has been created, many remaining degrees of freedom in the software architecture span a large, discontinuous design space. In current practice, software architects try to find solutions manually, which is time-consuming, can be error-prone and can lead to suboptimal designs. We propose an automated approach to search the design space for good solutions. Starting with a given initial architectural model, the approach iteratively modifies and evaluates architectural models. Our approach applies a multi-criteria genetic algorithm to software architectures modelled with the Palladio Component Model. It supports quantitative performance, reliability, and cost prediction and can be extended to other quantitative quality criteria of software architectures. We validate the applicability of our approach by applying it to an architecture model of a component-based business information system and analyse its quality criteria trade-offs by automatically investigating more than 1200 alternative design candidates.},
  author = {Anne Martens and Heiko Koziolek and Steffen Becker and Ralf H. Reussner},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the first joint WOSP/SIPEW international conference on Performance engineering},
  doi = {10.1145/1712605.1712624},
  editor = {Alan Adamson and Andre B. Bondi and Carlos Juiz and Mark S. Squillante},
  isbn = {978-1-60558-563-5},
  location = {San Jose, California, USA},
  pages = {105--116},
  pdf = {http://sdqweb.ipd.kit.edu/publications/pdfs/martens2010a.pdf},
  publisher = {ACM, New York, NY, USA},
  series = {WOSP/SIPEW '10},
  slides = {http://sdqweb.ipd.kit.edu/publications/pdfs/martens2010a_slides.ppsx},
  title = {Automatically Improve Software Models for Performance, Reliability and Cost Using Genetic Algorithms},
  url = {http://www.inf.pucrs.br/wosp},
  year = {2010}
}
@inproceedings{martin2015a,
  author = {Lukas M{\"{a}}rtin and Anne Koziolek and Ralf H. Reussner},
  bibsource = {dblp computer science bibliography, http://dblp.org},
  biburl = {http://dblp.dagstuhl.de/rec/bib/conf/ecsa/MartinKR15},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2015 European Conference on Software Architecture Workshops, Dubrovnik/Cavtat, Croatia, September 7-11, 2015},
  doi = {10.1145/2797433.2797484},
  editor = {Ivica Crnkovic},
  pages = {49:1--49:5},
  publisher = {{ACM}},
  timestamp = {Tue, 08 Sep 2015 16:21:53 +0200},
  title = {Quality-oriented Decision Support for maintaining Architectures of fault-tolerant Space Systems},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2797433.2797484},
  year = {2015},
  pdf = {http://sdqweb.ipd.kit.edu/publications/pdfs/martin2015a.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{martin2018a,
  author = {Lukas M{\"{a}}rtin and Nils-Andr\'e Forjahn and Anne Koziolek and Ralf Reussner},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Software Architecture},
  series = {ECSA'18},
  location = {Madrid, Spain},
  publisher = {Springer},
  address = {Berlin, DE},
  //keywords = {Software, Architecture, Model, Design Decision, Qualitative Reasoning},
  tags = {refereed},
  title = {{Guidance of Architectural Changes in Technical Systems with Varying Operational Modes}},
  //url = {},
  //doi = {},
  //pages = {},
  numpages = {4},
  //isbn = {},
  //pdf = {},
  year = {2018},
  abstract = {Technical systems often rely on redundant platforms. One way to increase dependability is to define various QoS modes, applied to different hardware resources. Switching between modes is limited by resource availability and causes costs for structural changes. Hence, selecting appropriate system architectures for specific resource sets and defining cost-efficient mode sequences is challenging. This short paper proposes an approach to support reconfiguration decisions for varying modes. We extend our decision graphs for traversing architectures towards multi-purpose applicability. We optimise reconfigurations within individual modes while reducing costs of mode changes simultaneously. Graph-based differentiations lead to most efficient mode sequences, transition configurations and visualisations. To respect high reconfigurability, we particularly inspect impacts of resource faults. For evaluation, we apply a subsystem of a micro satellite with multiple operational modes.},
  note = {accepted, to appear}
}
@inproceedings{menasche2012a,
  acmid = {2425260},
  address = {New York, NY, USA},
  author = {Menasch{\'e}, Daniel S. and Meri {Le\~{a}o}, Rosa Maria and de Souza e Silva, Edmundo and Avritzer, Alberto and Suresh, Sindhu and Trivedi, Kishor and Marie, Raymond A. and Happe, Lucia and Koziolek, Anne},
  booktitle = {SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review},
  doi = {10.1145/2425248.2425260},
  editor = {Martin Arlitt and Niklas Carlsson and Nidhi Hegde},
  issn = {0163-5999},
  issue_date = {December 2012},
  keywords = {smart grid, survivability, transient analysis},
  month = {January},
  note = {Special issue on the 2012 GreenMetrics workshop},
  number = {3},
  numpages = {5},
  pages = {53--57},
  pdf = {http://sdqweb.ipd.kit.edu/publications/pdfs/menasche2012a.pdf},
  publisher = {ACM},
  title = {Survivability analysis of power distribution in smart grids with active and reactive power modeling},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2425248.2425260},
  volume = {40},
  year = {2012}
}
@inproceedings{noorshams2010a,
  author = {Qais Noorshams and Anne Martens and Ralf Reussner},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on the Quality of Service-Oriented Software Systems (QUASOSS '10), Oslo, Norway, October 4, 2010},
  doi = {10.1145/1858263.1858265},
  isbn = {978-1-4503-0239-5},
  pages = {1:1--1:6},
  pdf = {http://sdqweb.ipd.kit.edu/publications/pdfs/noorshams2010a.pdf},
  publisher = {ACM, New York, NY, USA},
  title = {Using Quality of Service Bounds for Effective Multi-objective Software Architecture Optimization},
  url = {http://sdq.ipd.kit.edu/conferences_and_events/quasoss2010/},
  year = {2010}
}
@inproceedings{trubiani2011a,
  abstract = {Antipatterns are conceptually similar to patterns in that they document recurring solutions to common design problems. Performance Antipatterns document, from a performance perspective, common mistakes made during software development as well as their solutions. The definition of performance antipatterns concerns software properties that can include static, dynamic, and deployment aspects. Currently, such knowledge is only used by domain experts; the problem of automatically detecting and solving antipatterns within an architectural model has not been experimented yet. In this paper we present an approach to automatically detect and solve software performance antipatterns within the Palladio architectural models: the detection of an antipattern provides a software performance feedback to designers, since it suggests the architectural alternatives that actually allow to overcome specific performance problems. We implemented the approach and a case study is presented to demonstrate its validity. The system performance under study has been improved of 50\% by applying antipatterns' solutions.},
  acmid = {1958755},
  author = {Catia Trubiani and Anne Koziolek},
  booktitle = {Proceeding of the second joint WOSP/SIPEW international conference on Performance engineering},
  doi = {10.1145/1958746.1958755},
  editor = {Samuel Kounev and Vittorio Cortellessa and Raffaela Mirandola and David J. Lilja},
  isbn = {978-1-4503-0519-8},
  keywords = {palladio component model, performance antipatterns, software performance feedback},
  location = {Karlsruhe, Germany},
  note = {ICPE best paper award},
  numpages = {12},
  pages = {19--30},
  pdf = {http://sdqweb.ipd.kit.edu/publications/pdfs/trubiani2011a.pdf},
  publisher = {ACM, New York, NY, USA},
  series = {ICPE '11},
  title = {Detection and Solution of Software Performance Antipatterns in {Palladio} Architectural Models},
  url = {http://icpe2011.ipd.kit.edu},
  year = {2011}
}
@inproceedings{trubiani2015a,
  acmid = {2695532},
  address = {New York, NY, USA},
  author = {Trubiani, Catia and Koziolek, Anne and Happe, Lucia},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 6th ACM/SPEC International Conference on Performance Engineering},
  doi = {10.1145/2668930.2695532},
  isbn = {978-1-4503-3248-4},
  keywords = {quality optimisation, smart grid environment, software performance engineering},
  location = {Austin, Texas, USA},
  numpages = {4},
  pages = {199--202},
  pdf = {http://sdqweb.ipd.kit.edu/publications/pdfs/trubiani2015a.pdf},
  publisher = {ACM},
  series = {ICPE '15},
  title = {Exploiting Software Performance Engineering Techniques to Optimise the Quality of Smart Grid Environments},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2668930.2695532},
  year = {2015}
}
@inproceedings{wohlrab2014a,
  abstract = {To meet end-user performance expectations, precise performance requirements are needed during development and testing, e.g., to conduct detailed performance and load tests. However, in practice, several factors complicate performance requirements elicitation: lacking skills in performance requirements engineering, outdated or unavailable functional specifications and architecture models, the specification of the system's context, lack of experience to collect good performance requirements in an industrial setting with very limited time, etc. From the small set of available non-functional requirements engineering methods, no method exists that alone leads to precise and complete performance requirements with feasible effort and which has been reported to work in an industrial setting. In this paper, we present our experiences in combining existing requirements engineering methods into a performance requirements method called PROPRE. It has been designed to require no up-to-date system documentation and to be applicable with limited time and effort. We have successfully applied PROPRE in an industrial case study from the process automation domain. Our lessons learned show that the stakeholders gathered good performance requirements which now improve performance testing.},
  author = {Rebekka Wohlrab and Thijmen de Gooijer and Anne Koziolek and Steffen Becker},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 22nd IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference (RE)},
  doi = {10.1109/RE.2014.6912285},
  keywords = {formal specification;program testing;software architecture;PROPRE;RE methods;architecture models;end-user performance expectations;functional specifications;industrial setting;nonfunctional requirements engineering methods;performance requirements elicitation;performance requirements engineering;performance testing;process automation domain;software development;system context specification;Adaptation models;Context;Documentation;Measurement;Testing;Throughput;Time factors},
  month = {August},
  pages = {344--353},
  pdf = {http://sdqweb.ipd.kit.edu/publications/pdfs/wohlrab2014a.pdf},
  title = {Experience of Pragmatically Combining {RE} Methods for Performance Requirements in Industry},
  year = {2014}
}
@inproceedings{busch2015a,
  address = {New York, NY, USA},
  author = {Busch, Axel and Noorshams, Qais and Kounev, Samuel and Koziolek, Anne and Reussner, Ralf and Amrehn, Erich},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the ACM/SPEC International Conference on Performance Engineering},
  doi = {10.1145/2668930.2688050},
  location = {Austin, Texas, USA},
  note = {Acceptance Rate (Full Paper): 15/56 = 27\%.},
  pages = {265--276},
  pdf = {http://sdqweb.ipd.kit.edu/publications/pdfs/busch2015a.pdf},
  publisher = {ACM},
  series = {ICPE '15},
  title = {{Automated Workload Characterization for I/O Performance Analysis in Virtualized Environments}},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2668930.2688050},
  year = {2015},
  abstract = {Next generation IT infrastructures are highly driven by virtualization technology. The latter enables flexible and efficient resource sharing allowing to improve system agility and reduce costs for IT services. Due to the sharing of resources and the increasing requirements of modern applications on I/O processing, the performance of storage systems is becoming a crucial factor. In particular, when migrating or consolidating different applications the impact on their performance behavior is often an open question. Performance modeling approaches help to answer such questions, a prerequisite, however, is to find an appropriate workload characterization that is both easy to obtain from applications as well as sufficient to capture the important characteristics of the application. In this paper, we present an automated workload characterization approach that extracts a workload model to represent the main aspects of I/O-intensive applications using relevant workload parameters, e.g., request size, read-write ratio, in virtualized environments. Once extracted, workload models can be used to emulate the workload performance behavior in real-world scenarios like migration and consolidation scenarios. We demonstrate our approach in the context of two case studies of representative system environments. We present an in-depth evaluation of our workload characterization approach showing its effectiveness in workload migration and consolidation scenarios. We use an IBM System z equipped with an IBM DS8700 and a Sun Fire system as state-of-the-art virtualized environments. Overall, the evaluation of our workload characterization approach shows promising results to capture the relevant factors of I/O-intensive applications.}
}
@inproceedings{kaplan2018a,
  title = {Categories of Change Triggers in Business Processes},
  author = {Kaplan, Angelika and Busch, Kiana and Heinrich, Robert and Koziolek, Anne},
  booktitle = {Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications (SEAA)},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  year = {2018},
  abstract = {Business processes need to constantly adapt due to changes in their environment and requirements. Therefore, one of the main activities in business process management is the management of changes. To effectively manage changes, there is a need for categorization of change triggers in business processes. However, existing categories of change triggers are limited to information systems and neglect the change triggers of business processes. We conducted a review with a well-defined methodology to identify categories of change triggers in business processes. This paper presents a generic categorization scheme of change triggers in business processes based on the results of the review. The new categorization scheme can serve as a checklist to elicit the possible future business process changes and, thus, support the process of change and risk management.},
  pdf = {http://sdqweb.ipd.kit.edu/publications/pdfs/kaplan2018a.pdf},
  tags = {refereed},
  note = {{accepted, to appear}}
}
@inproceedings{Avritzer20155,
  abstract = {Abstract The infrastructures used in cities to supply power, water and gas are consistently becoming more automated. As society depends critically on these cyber-physical infrastructures, their survivability assessment deserves more attention. In this overview, we first touch upon a taxonomy on survivability of cyber-physical infrastructures, before we focus on three classes of infrastructures (gas, water and electricity) and discuss recent modelling and evaluation approaches and challenges.},
  author = {Alberto Avritzer and Laura Carnevali and Hamed Ghasemieh and Lucia Happe and Boudewijn R. Haverkort and Anne Koziolek and Daniel Menasche and Anne Remke and Sahra Sedigh Sarvestani and Enrico Vicario},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the Seventh International Workshop on the Practical Application of Stochastic Modelling (PASM)},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.entcs.2014.12.010},
  issn = {1571-0661},
  keywords = {hybrid models},
  number = {0},
  pages = {5 - 25},
  publisher = {Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science},
  title = {Survivability Evaluation of Gas, Water and Electricity Infrastructures},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1571066114000942},
  volume = {310},
  year = {2015},
  pdf = {http://sdqweb.ipd.kit.edu/publications/pdfs/Avritzer20155.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{busch2015c,
  author = {Busch, Axel and Strittmatter, Misha and Koziolek, Anne},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability \& Security},
  location = {Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada},
  note = {Acceptance Rate (Full Paper): 20/91 = 22\%},
  pages = {99--108},
  pdf = {http://sdqweb.ipd.kit.edu/publications/pdfs/busch2015c.pdf},
  publisher = {IEEE Computer Society},
  series = {QRS '15},
  tags = {refereed},
  title = {{Assessing Security to Compare Architecture Alternatives of Component-Based Systems}},
  year = {2015},
  doi = {10.1109/QRS.2015.24},
  abstract = {Modern software development is typically performed by composing a software system from building blocks. The component-based paradigm has many advantages. However, security quality attributes of the overall architecture often remain unspecified and therefore, these cannot be considered when comparing several architecture alternatives. In this paper, we propose an approach for assessing security of component-based software architectures. Our hierarchical model uses stochastic modeling techniques and includes several security related factors, such as attackers, his goals, the security attributes of a component, and the mutual security interferences between them. Applied on a component-based architecture, our approach yields its mean time to security failure, which assesses its degree of security. We extended the Palladio Component Model (PCM) by the necessary information to be able to use it as input for the security assessment. We use the PCM representation to show the applicability of our approach on an industry related example.}
}
@inproceedings{stier2015a,
  author = {Stier, Christian and Koziolek, Anne and Groenda, Henning and Reussner, Ralf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 9th European Conference on Software Architecture (ECSA '15)},
  location = {Dubrovnik/Cavtat, Croatia},
  note = {Acceptance Rate (Full Paper): 15/80 = 18.8\%},
  pdf = {http://sdqweb.ipd.kit.edu/publications/pdfs/stier2015a.pdf},
  publisher = {Springer},
  series = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
  title = {{Model-Based Energy Efficiency Analysis of Software Architectures}},
  year = {2015},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-23727-5_18},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-23727-5_18},
  abstract = {Design-time quality analysis of software architectures evaluates the impact of design decisions in quality dimensions such as performance. Architectural design decisions decisively impact the energy efficiency (EE) of software systems. Low EE not only results in higher operational cost due to power consumption. It indirectly necessitates additional capacity in the power distribution infrastructure of the target deployment environment. Methodologies that analyze EE of software systems are yet to reach an abstraction suited for architecture-level reasoning. This paper outlines a model-based approach for evaluating the EE of software architectures. First, we present a model that describes the central power consumption characteristics of a software system. We couple the model with an existing model-based performance prediction approach to evaluate the consumption characteristics of a software architecture in varying usage contexts. Several experiments show the accuracy of our architecture-level consumption predictions. Energy consumption predictions reach an error of less than 5.5% for stable and 3.7% for varying workloads. Finally, we present a round-trip design scenario that illustrates how the explicit consideration of EE supports software architects in making informed trade-off decisions between performance and EE.}
}
@inproceedings{busch2016a,
  author = {Busch, Axel and Koziolek, Anne},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 12th International ACM SIGSOFT Conference on the Quality of Software Architectures},
  location = {Venice, Italy},
  pdf = {http://sdqweb.ipd.kit.edu/publications/pdfs/busch2016a.pdf},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  pages = {50--59},
  series = {QoSA'16},
  doi = {10.1109/QoSA.2016.10},
  tags = {refereed},
  title = {{Considering Not-quantified Quality Attributes in an Automated Design Space Exploration}},
  year = {2016},
  abstract = {In a software design process, the quality of the resulting software system is highly driven by the quality of its software architecture. In such a process trade-off decisions must be made between multiple quality attributes, such as performance or security, that are often competing. Several approaches exist to improve software architectures either quantitatively or qualitatively. The first group of approaches requires to quantify each single quality attribute to be considered in the design process, while the latter group of approaches are often fully manual processes. However, time and cost constraints often make it impossible to either quantify all relevant quality attributes or manually evaluate candidate architectures. Our approach to the problem is to quantify several most important quality requirements, combine them with several not-quantified quality attributes and use them together in an automated design space exploration process. As our basis, we used the PerOpteryx design space exploration approach, which requires quantified measures for its optimization engine, and extended it in order to combine them with not-quantified quality attributes. By this, our approach allows optimizing the design space by considering even quality attributes that can not be quantified due to cost constraints or lack of quantification methodologies. We applied our approach to two case studies to demonstrate its benefits. We showed how performance can be balanced against not-quantified quality attributes, such as security, using an example derived from an industry case study.}
}
@inproceedings{stier2016a,
  author = {Stier, Christian and Koziolek, Anne},
  booktitle = {2016 12th International ACM SIGSOFT Conference on Quality of Software Architectures (QoSA)},
  location = {Venice, Italy},
  publisher = {ACM},
  series = {QoSA'16},
  tags = {refereed},
  title = {{Considering Transient Effects of Self-Adaptations in Model-Driven Performance Analyses}},
  year = {2016},
  doi = {10.1109/QoSA.2016.14},
  pdf = {https://sdqweb.ipd.kit.edu/publications/pdfs/stier2016a.pdf},
  abstract = {Model-driven performance engineering allows software architects to reason on performance characteristics of a software system in early design phases. In recent years, model-driven analysis techniques have been developed to evaluate performance characteristics of self-adaptive software systems. These techniques aim to reason on the ability of a self-adaptive software system to fulfill performance requirements in transient phases. A transient phase is the interval in which the behavior of the system changes, e.g., due to a burst in user requests. However, the effectiveness and efficiency with which a system is able to adapt depends not only on the time when it triggers adaptation actions but also on the time at which they are completed. Executing an adaptation action can cause additional stress on the adapted system. This can further impede the performance of the system in the transient phase. Model-driven analyses of self-adaptive software do not consider these transient effects. This paper outlines an approach for evaluating transient effects in model-driven analyses of self-adaptive software systems. The evaluation applied our approach to a horizontally scaling media hosting application in three experiments. By considering the delay in booting new Virtual Machines (VMs), we were able to improve the accuracy of predicted response times. The second and third experiment demonstrated that the increased accuracy enables an early detection and resolution of design deficiencies of self-adaptive software systems.}
}
@inproceedings{busch2016b,
  author = {Axel Busch and Qais Noorshams and Samuel Kounev and Anne Koziolek and Ralf Reussner and Erich Amrehn},
  title = {Automated Workload Characterization for I/O Performance Analysis in Virtualized Environments},
  booktitle = {Software Engineering 2016, Fachtagung des GI-Fachbereichs Softwaretechnik},
  pages = {27--28},
  year = {2016},
  url = {http://subs.emis.de/LNI/Proceedings/Proceedings252/article48.html},
  pdf = {http://subs.emis.de/LNI/Proceedings/Proceedings252/27.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{burger2016b,
  author = {Erik Burger and Victoria Mittelbach and Anne Koziolek},
  title = {View-based and Model-driven Outage Management for the Smart Grid},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 11th Workshop on Models@run.time co-located with ACM/IEEE 19th International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems (MODELS 2016)},
  venue = {Saint Malo, France},
  month = {October},
  year = {2016},
  url = {http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-1742},
  publisher = {CEUR Workshop Proceedings},
  urn = {nbn:de:0074-1742-3},
  pdf = {http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-1742/MRT16_paper_1.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{busch2016d,
  author = {Axel Busch and Yves Schneider and Anne Koziolek and Kiana Rostami and J\"{o}rg Kienzle},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Cloud Security and Data Privacy by Design co-located with the 8th IEEE International Conference on Cloud Computing Technology and Science (CloudCom 2016)},
  location = {Luxembourg},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  series = {CloudSPD'16},
  tags = {refereed},
  title = {{Modelling the Structure of Reusable Solutions for Architecture-based Quality Evaluation}},
  doi = {10.1109/CloudCom.2016.0091},
  url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7830732/},
  pages = {521--526},
  pdf = {http://sdqweb.ipd.kit.edu/publications/pdfs/busch2016d.pdf},
  year = {2016},
  abstract = {When designing cloud applications many decisions must be made like the selection of the right set of software components. Often, there are several third-party implementations on the market from which software architects have the choice between several solutions that are functionally very similar. Even though they are comparable in functionality, the solutions differ in their quality attributes, and in their software architecture. This diversity hinders automated decision support in model-driven engineering approaches, since current state-of-the-art approaches for automated quality estimation often rely on similar architecture to compare several solutions. In this paper, we address this problem by contributing with a metamodel that unifies the architecture of several functional similar solutions, and describes the different solutions' architectural degrees of freedom. Such a model can later be used to extend the process of reuse from reusing libraries to reusing the corresponding models of these libraries with the lasting benefit of automated decision support at design-time that supports decisions when deploying applications into the cloud. Finally, we apply our approach on two intrusion detection systems.}
}
@inproceedings{MBKR16,
  author = {Lukas M{\"{a}}rtin and Hauke Baller and Anne Koziolek and Ralf H. Reussner},
  title = {Fault-aware Pareto Frontier Exploration for Dependable System Architectures},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Interplay of Model-Driven and Component-Based Software Engineering (ModComp) @ MoDELS 2016},
  year = {2016},
  url = {http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-1723/},
  pdf = {http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-1723/4.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{kienzle2016a,
  author = {J\"{o}rg Kienzle and Anne Koziolek and Axel Busch and Ralf Reussner},
  title = {Towards Concern-Oriented Design of Component-Based Systems},
  booktitle = {3rd International Workshop on Interplay of Model-Driven and Component-Based Software Engineering},
  venue = {Saint Malo, France},
  publisher = {CEUR},
  year = {2016},
  month = {October},
  tags = {refereed},
  url = {http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-1723/},
  pdf = {http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-1723/5.pdf},
  abstract = {Component-based software engineering (CBSE) is a modern way of developing software that is based on defining, implementing and composing loosely coupled, independent components, thus increasing modularity, analysability, separation of concerns and reuse. However, separation of concerns is sometimes difficult to achieve in CBSE, as some concerns might crosscut several components. Furthermore, reuse of components is sometimes limited, in particular because component developers make certain implementation choices that are incompatible with the non-functional requirements of the application that is being built. In this paper we outline how to integrate CBSE and concern-oriented reuse (CORE), a novel reuse paradigm that extends Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) with best practices from aspect-oriented software composition and Software Product Lines (SPL). Concretely, we outline how to combine the Palladio Component Model (PCM) capable of expressing complex software architectures with CORE class and sequence diagrams for low-level design. As a result, multiple solutions for addressing concerns that might even crosscut component boundaries can be modularized in a reusable way, and integrated with applications that reuse them using aspect-oriented techniques. Additionally, thanks to CORE, component developers can avoid premature decision making when reusing existing libraries during implementation.}
}
@inproceedings{stier2017a,
  author = {Christian Stier and Dominik Werle and Anne Koziolek},
  title = {Deriving Power Models for Architecture-Level Energy Efficiency Analyses},
  year = {2017},
  publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
  editor = {Reinecke, Philipp and Di Marco, Antinisca},
  booktitle = {Computer Performance Engineering: 14th European Workshop, EPEW 2017, Berlin, Germany, September 7-8, 2017, Proceedings},
  address = {Cham},
  pages = {214--229},
  abstract = {In early design phases and during software evolution, design-time energy efficiency analyses enable software architects to reason on the effect of design decisions on energy efficiency. Energy efficiency analyses rely on accurate power models to estimate power consumption. Deriving power models that are both accurate and usable for design time predictions requires extensive measurements and manual analysis. Existing approaches that aim to automate the extraction of power models focus on the construction of models for runtime estimation of power consumption. Power models constructed by these approaches do not allow users to identify the central set of system metrics that impact energy efficiency prediction accuracy. The identification of these central metrics is important for design time analyses, as an accurate prediction of each metric incurs modeling effort. We propose a methodology for the automated construction of multi-metric power models using systematic experimentation. Our approach enables the automated training and selection of power models for the design time prediction of power consumption. We validate our approach by evaluating the prediction accuracy of derived power models for a set of enterprise and data-intensive application benchmarks.},
  isbn = {978-3-319-66583-2},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-66583-2_14},
  url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-66583-2_14},
  pdf = {http://sdqweb.ipd.kit.edu/publications/pdfs/stier2017a.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{stier2017b,
  author = {Christian Stier and Anne Koziolek},
  title = {Considering Transient Effects of Self-Adaptations in Model-Driven Performance Analyses},
  booktitle = {Software Engineering 2017, Fachtagung des GI-Fachbereichs Softwaretechnik, 21.-24. Februar 2017, Hannover, Deutschland},
  pages = {99--100},
  year = {2017},
  url = {https://www.gi.de/fileadmin/redaktion/2017_LNI/lni-p-267-komplett.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{kounev2016analysis,
  title = {Analysis of the trade-offs in different modeling approaches for performance prediction of software systems.},
  author = {Kounev, Samuel and Brosig, Fabian and Meier, Philipp and Becker, Steffen and Koziolek, Anne and Koziolek, Heiko and Rygielski, Piotr},
  booktitle = {Software Engineering},
  pages = {47--48},
  year = {2016}
}
@inproceedings{scheerer17a,
  author = {Max Scheerer and Axel Busch and Anne Koziolek},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 15th ACM-IEEE International Conference on Formal Methods and Models for System Design},
  series = {MEMOCODE'17},
  location = {Vienna, Austria},
  publisher = {ACM},
  address = {New York, NY, USA},
  keywords = {component-based, decision support, model-driven engineering, reuse, software architecture, software quality},
  series = {MEMOCODE'17},
  tags = {refereed},
  title = {{Automatic Evaluation of Complex Design Decisions in Component-based Software Architectures}},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3127041.3127059},
  doi = {10.1145/3127041.3127059},
  acmid = {3127059},
  pages = {67--76},
  numpages = {10},
  isbn = {978-1-4503-5093-8},
  pdf = {http://sdqweb.ipd.kit.edu/publications/pdfs/scheerer2017a.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  abstract = {The quality of modern industrial plants depends on the quality of the hardware used, as well as software. While the impact on quality is comparably well understood by making decisions about the choice of hardware components, this is less true for the decisions on software components. The quality of the resulting software system is strongly influenced by its software architecture. Especially in early project phases a software architect has to make many design decisions. Each design decision highly influences the software architecture and thus, the resulting software quality. However, the impact on the resulting quality of architecture design decisions is hard to estimate in advance. For instance, a software architect could decide to deploy software components on a dedicated server in order to improve the system performance. However, such a decision may increase the network overhead as side-effect. Model-driven approaches have been shown as promising techniques enabling design-time quality prediction for different quality attributes such as performance or reliability. However, such approaches are limited in their automated decision support to simple design decisions like the exchange of one single component. In this paper, we present an approach that automatically evaluates complex design decisions in software architecture models. Such design decisions require the reuse of subsystems with many involved components coming with inhomogeneous architectures. We evaluate our approach using a real-world example system demonstrating the benefits of our approach.}
}
@inproceedings{mazkatli2017ase,
  title = {Automotive Systems Modelling with Vitruvius},
  author = {Mazkatli, Manar and Burger, Erik and Koziolek, Anne and Reussner, Ralf H.},
  booktitle = {15. Workshop Automotive Software Engineering},
  venue = {Chemnitz},
  year = {2017},
  isbn = {978-3-88579-669-5},
  issn = {1617-5468},
  pages = {1487--1498},
  volume = {P-275},
  doi = {10.18420/in2017_148},
  publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik, Bonn},
  series = {Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI)},
  editors = {Maximilian Eibl and Martin Gaedke},
  pdf = {http://sdqweb.ipd.kit.edu/publications/pdfs/mazkatli2017ase.pdf},
  url = {https://dx.doi.org/10.18420/in2017_148}
}
@inproceedings{abusch2018a,
  author = {Busch, Axel and Koziolek, Anne},
  title = {{Considering Not-quantified Quality Attributes in an Automated Design Space Exploration}},
  booktitle = {Software Engineering 2018, Fachtagung des GI-Fachbereichs Softwaretechnik},
  //pages = {},
  year = {2018},
  tags = {refereed},
  location = {Ulm, Germany},
  //url = {},
  //pdf = {},
  note = {{accepted, to appear}}
}
@inproceedings{stier2018a,
  title = {{Rapid Testing of IaaS Resource Management Algorithms via Cloud Middleware Simulation}},
  titleaddon = {(Short Paper)},
  author = {Christian Stier and J\"{o}rg Domaschka and Anne Koziolek and Sebastian Krach and Jakub Krzywda and Ralf Reussner},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 9th ACM/SPEC International Conference on Performance Engineering},
  series = {ICPE '18},
  isbn = {978-1-4503-5095-2},
  location = {Berlin, Germany},
  publisher = {ACM},
  address = {New York, NY, USA},
  year = {2018},
  numpages = {8},
  pdf = {http://sdqweb.ipd.kit.edu/publications/pdfs/stier2018a.pdf},
  pages = {184--191},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3184407.3184428},
  doi = {10.1145/3184407.3184428},
  keywords = {IaaS middleware simulation, cloud simulation, performance model extraction, performance simulation, power consumption prediction, simulation-based testing of resource management algorithms}
}
@inproceedings{Mazkatli2018Qudos,
  author = {Mazkatli, Manar and Koziolek, Anne},
  title = {Continuous Integration of Performance Model},
  booktitle = {Companion of the 2018 ACM/SPEC International Conference on Performance Engineering},
  year = {2018},
  series = {ICPE '18},
  pages = {153--158},
  address = {New York, NY, USA},
  publisher = {ACM},
  acmid = {3186285},
  doi = {10.1145/3185768.3186285},
  isbn = {978-1-4503-5629-9},
  keywords = {continuous/incremental performance management, incremental reverse engineering, model-based performance engineering, parametric performance model},
  location = {Berlin, Germany},
  numpages = {6},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3185768.3186285}
}
@inproceedings{Mazkatli2018MiSE,
  author = {Mazkatli, Manar and Burger, Erik and Quante, Jochen and Koziolek, Anne},
  title = {Integrating semantically-related Legacy Models in Vitruvius},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of Modelling in Software Engineering co-located with the 40th International Conference on Software Engineering},
  year = {2018},
  month = {May},
  numpages = {8}
}
@inproceedings{schneider18a,
  author = {Yves Schneider and Axel Busch and Anne Koziolek},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Software Architecture},
  series = {ECSA'18},
  location = {Madrid, Spain},
  publisher = {Springer},
  address = {Berlin, DE},
  keywords = {Software, Architecture, Model, Design Decision, Qualitative Reasoning},
  tags = {refereed},
  title = {{Using Informal Knowledge for Improving Software Quality Trade-off Decisions}},
  numpages = {16},
  year = {2018},
  abstract = {To deliver high-quality software, in a software development process a variety of quality attributes must be considered such as performance, usability or security. In particular, quality attributes such as security and usability are difficult to analyze quantitatively. Knowledge about such quality attributes is often only informally available and therefore cannot be processed in structured and formalized decision-making approaches to optimize the software architecture. In this paper, we have defined a framework in order to make use of informally available knowledge in automated design decision support processes. We connect qualitative reasoning models with models for quantitative quality estimation to optimize software architectures regarding both knowledge representation models together. By our approach quality attributes for which no quantitative evaluation model is available can now be used in automated software architecture optimization approaches. For evaluating our approach, we demonstrate its benefits using a real-world case study and an example that is related to a real-world system.},
  note = {accepted, to appear}
}